所 載 Dudoignon, S.A., and Komatsu, H. (eds.), Research Trends in Modern Central Eurasian Studies (18th-20th Centuries); A Selective and Critical Bibliography of Works Published between 1985 and 2000. Part 2. (Tokyo: The Toyo Bunko) p.188. HTML版公開 2008年11月17日 最終更新 2008年11月17日
MILLWARD, James A., Beyond the Pass: Economy, Ethnicity, and Empire in Qing Central Asia, 1759-1864, Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1998, xxii+353p.
This study examines the fiscal and ethnic policies which the Qing Empire carried out over Xinjiang in its initial stage(1759-1864). The author gives dynamic and extensive pictures of Qing Imperialism as an Inner Asian Empire based on enormous and various Qing historical sources. In the introduction he discusses on ambiguity and liminality of Jiayuguan, a traditional pass between China proper and the Western region. The following chapters, examine Qing's Imperial policies and statecrafts on the matter of "beyond the pass". The author describes the geographical and historical background (chapter 1), and examines fiscal policies implemented after Qianlong's conquest over Eastern Turkestan (chapter 2), commercial policy (chapter 3), penetration of Han Chinese (chapter 4), trade between Xinjiang and China proper (chapter 5) and ethnic policies (chapter 6). To this "new dominion", Qianlong court took the policy of ethnic segregation and established military government which heavily relying on annual subsidies from China proper. Afterwards, due to the financial crisis in the early 19th century, this ruling system and political ideology shifted to the fiscal dependence on the commercial tax, and to be allowed penetration of Han merchants. By showing detailed accounts of Xinjiang economy and several discources by statecraft thinkers, the author successfully describes the expansion of liminality (or conception of the realm), and the process of transition toward present situation of Xinjiang. As well known, present Xinjiang (Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region) is said to be an "element" of People's Republic of China, and this grand-design originated from the territory of the Qing Empire. This study primarily reveals that the ideological, economical, and political foundation of this region are correctly traceable to the transformation in 1830s.
Beyond the Pass: Economy, Ethnicity, and Empire in Qing Central Asia, 1759-1864